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InfoQ Homepage Articles GraalVM Java Compilers Join OpenJDK in 2023, Align with OpenJDK Releases and Processes
Dec 21, 2022 15 min read
by
Karsten Silz
reviewed by
Michael Redlich
As part of the GraalVM release 22.3, Oracle detailed the planned move of two GraalVM projects to OpenJDK. Sometime in 2023, the code for the Community Editions of the Just-in-time (JIT) compiler ("Graal Compiler") and the Ahead-of-Time (AOT) compiler for native OS executables ("Native Image") will move to at least one new OpenJDK project. Existing releases, GraalVM Enterprise Edition features, and other GraalVM projects will remain at GraalVM.
Oracle originally announced this move during JavaOne in October 2022 without providing specifics. In mid-December 2022, OpenJDK then proposed Project Galahad for the move.
The GraalVM project is part of Oracle Labs and, thereby, not under OpenJDK governance. GraalVM currently has four feature releases per year and follows a different development process than OpenJDK.
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At OpenJDK, the GraalVM Java compilers will align with the Java release cadence of two feature updates per year, four annual patch updates, and one Long-Term Support (LTS) release every two years. The GraalVM OpenJDK project will use the OpenJDK Community processes and submit JDK Enhancement Proposals (JEP) for inclusion in OpenJDK Java releases. 
The Graal Compiler is written in Java and uses the Hotspot VM in a Java Runtime Environment (JRE). It replaces the C2 JIT compiler, written in C++, which ships in most Java distributions.
The GraalVM Native Image AOT compiler produces native executables that typically start much faster, use less CPU and memory, and have a smaller disk size than Java applications running in a JRE with a JIT compiler. That makes Java more competitive in the cloud. GraalVM Native Image achieves these optimizations by removing unused code and pre-calculating the application heap snapshot, using the Graal Compiler under the hood. But that also excludes some Java applications from using GraalVM Native Image. InfoQ recently published an article series on this topic.
The Enterprise Edition provides improved Native Image performance, such as the Profile-Guided Optimizations for runtime profiling, but it will not move to OpenJDK. Neither will the other GraalVM projects, such as support for other languages like JavaScript or Python, or Java on Truffle, a Java replacement for the entire Hotspot VM.
The GraalVM Community Edition ships under the GNU General Public License, version 2, with the Classpath Exception. Many OpenJDK distributions, including Oracle's OpenJDK builds, use that same license. Oracle's Java distribution, on the other hand, uses the "Oracle No-Fee Terms and Conditions" license. Oracle announced the alignment of "all the GraalVM technologies with Java […] from a licensing perspective" and promised "additional details […] in the coming months."
GraalVM 22.3 was the last feature release for 2022. It has experimental support for JDK 19, including virtual threads and structured concurrency from Project Loom. Full support for JDK 19 will come in GraalVM 23.0 at the end of January 2023. 
The release contains a lot of improvements for monitoring native executables, an area that lags behind Java programs running in a JRE. The JDK tool, jvmstat, can now monitor the performance and resource usage of native executables and collect heap dumps for inspection with VisualVM. Native executables can also record the JavaMonitorEnter, JavaMonitorWait, and ThreadSleep events for the free Java Flight Recorder (JFR) tool.
The GraalVM Native Image compiler needs so-called hints about the usage of reflection in Java code. Working with the Spring and Micronaut frameworks, GraalVM launched a public repository of such hints for Java libraries in July 2022. That repository, called "GraalVM Reachability Metadata," now has entries for Hibernate, Jetty, JAXB, and Thymeleaf.
The GraalVM Native Image AOT compiler performed  2-3 times faster in select benchmarks. Native executables use less memory at runtime and run integer min/max operations much more quickly. Two optimizations, StripMineCountedLoops and EarlyGVN, added as experimental in 22.2, are now stable and enabled by default.
Native executables can now contain a Software Bill of Materials (SBOM), and the debugging experience has improved by better identifying memory usage and memory leaks.
In GraalVM ecosystem news, the current IntelliJ version 2022.3 has experimental support for debugging native executables, and JUnit 5.9.1 has annotations for including or excluding them. 
The Python implementation in GraalVM changed its name to GraalPy. It saw many compatibility and performance improvements, as did the Ruby implementation TruffleRuby. Python and other languages in GraalVM benefit from the experimental availability of the LLVM Runtime on Windows.
This GraalVM release provides a new download option through a one-line shell script for macOS and Windows:
Project Leyden is an OpenJDK initiative with a mission "to improve the startup time, time to peak performance, and footprint of Java programs." Oracle clarified GraalVM's relationship to that project: it "plans to evolve the Native Image technology in the OpenJDK Community to track the Project Leyden specification." The original goal of Project Leyden was to add native executables, like the ones produced by the GraalVM Native Image AOT compiler, to the Java Language Specification. After its formal creation in June 2020, the project showed no public activity for two years.
In May 2022, Project Leyden emerged again with a second goal: identifying and implementing far-reaching optimizations for Java applications running in a JRE with a JIT compiler. It did this because the GraalVM AOT compiler enforces a closed-world assumption and must have all application information, such as its classes and resources, at build time. Some Java applications and libraries use dynamic features in Java that don’t work within this constraint. At least some of the optimizations from this second goal will also require changes to the Java Language Specification. Its implementation will rely on existing tools, such as the Hotspot VM and the jlink tool.
In October 2022, Project Leyden detailed how to achieve both goals. It introduced the concept of a condenser that runs between compile time and run time. It "transforms a program into a new, faster, and potentially smaller program while preserving the meaning" of the original program. The Java Language Specification will evolve to contain condensers.
Condensers will define how AOT compilation and native executables fit into Java, fulfilling the original goal of Project Leyen. But condensers will also improve Java applications running in JRE with a JIT compiler, serving the second goal. The GraalVM Java compilers, the JRE, and the HotSpot JIT compiler continue to receive features and updates independent of Project Leyden. So condensers provide an additional layer of optimization.
As of mid-December 2022, the development of condensers has yet to start. That makes it unlikely that Project Leyden will ship condensers in the next Java LTS release, Java 21, in September 2023. So the earliest possible Java LTS release with results of Project Leyden may be Java 25 in September 2025.
Spring Boot, with the release of version 3.0 in November 2022, joins the group of Java frameworks that have already supported AOT compilation with GraalVM Native Image in production: Quarkus, Micronaut, and Helidon. InfoQ spoke to representatives from all four frameworks about Oracle's announcement.
The first responses come from Andrew Dinn, Distinguished Engineer in Red Hat's Java Team, and Dan Heidinga, Principal Software Engineer at Red Hat. They published an InfoQ article in May 2022, arguing for a closer alignment between OpenJDK and GraalVM.
InfoQ: Your InfoQ article from May 2022 said, "Native Java needs to be brought into OpenJDK to enable co-evolution with other ongoing enhancements." From that perspective, how do you view Oracle’s announcement?
Andrew Dinn & Dan Heidinga: We’re really positive on Oracle’s announcement and on the recent progress on Project Leyden. Bringing the key parts of GraalVM — the JIT compiler and the Native Image code — under the OpenJDK project helps bring both development and user communities together.  
Working together under the OpenJDK project using a common development model and the existing OpenJDK governance enables better communication and collaboration between the GraalVM developers and the broader OpenJDK community. And it makes it easier for these components to influence the design of other Java projects like Valhalla or Amber in ways that make them more amenable to AOT compilation.
Finally, it brings GraalVM directly under the remit of the Java specification process and ensures that Java and GraalVM evolve together in a consistent direction.
InfoQ: Oracle also announced that the GraalVM Native Image AOT compiler will implement the specifications of the OpenJDK project Leyden. Leyden recently delayed the standardization of native Java in favor of optimizing JIT compilation. How do you view that decision now, given this new development?
Dinn & Heidinga: Leyden recently laid out Mark Reinhold’s vision for how to start to address the problem space. He suggests using "Condensers" to help shift computation from one application phase to another. And he mentions both specification changes to support this approach (a necessary task to provide a stable foundation to build on!) and Java language changes, such as the lazy statics JEP draft.
None of this says "delay AOT" or "optimize JIT." This approach enables both AOT and JIT — as well as general execution — to be optimized. His example is using an XML library to read a configuration file before run time. This approach to shifting computation helps both AOT and JIT compilation. As we’ve seen with frameworks like Quarkus, being able to initialize state at build time has been critical for faster startup. Leyden is now laying the groundwork to do that pre-initialization in a way that preserves the meaning of the program — one of the key requirements Andrew and I had called out in our article.
This is not simply a matter of ensuring that GraalVM is tightly and reliably bound to the Java specification. Mark's proposal clarifies that Leyden will, if required, carefully and coherently update the specification to permit behavioral variations appropriate to specific Condensation steps. For example, it even mentions the need to clarify the semantics of class loader behavior when targeting a fully closed-world AOT program.
Bringing GraalVM into OpenJDK also makes mixing and matching the code from both projects easier. Maybe GraalVM’s Native Image AOT compiler becomes the final condenser in a pipeline of program transformations?
InfoQ: Your article described some Java features that don’t work in native Java. Java Agent support, which is vital for observability, is another missing feature. What should GraalVM do about these limitations — if anything?
Dinn & Heidinga: The GraalVM team will likely be fairly busy migrating their code into OpenJDK over the next year or so. Migration projects tend to take longer than expected, even when expecting them to do so.
We see the GraalVM community working to increase the tooling available for Native Image, including efforts by Red Hat to support JFR and JMX, and work on debugging support, including efforts by both Red Hat and IntelliJ, all in conjunction with the Oracle developers.
GraalVM is in a great place to continue evolving and collaborating with existing agent providers to find the right instrumentation API for Native Image. Anything learned in this process will be directly applicable to Leyden and speed up the delivery of Leyden.
That’s the end goal now: getting all the experience and learning — and hopefully some code — fed into the Leyden development process to help that project deliver the required specification updates, language changes, and condenser tools to drive broad adoption across the frameworks, libraries, and applications.
Sébastien Deleuze, Spring Framework Committer at VMware, shared the views of the Spring ecosystem.
InfoQ: How do you view the move of the GraalVM JIT and AOT compilers for Java to OpenJDK?
Sébastien Deleuze: Since our work compiling Spring applications to native executables began, we have collaborated very closely with the GraalVM team. Our goal is to limit the differences between "native Java" and "Java on the JVM" while keeping the efficiency benefits of the AOT approach. So from our point of view, the move of the GraalVM JIT and AOT compilers to OpenJDK is good news because it is a key step towards a more unified Java under the OpenJDK banner, even if some differences will remain between native and the JVM.
We are also reaching a point where more and more issues or optimizations require some changes on the OpenJDK codebase. So hopefully, having GraalVM on the OpenJDK side will help, including via closer collaboration with Project Leyden.
GraalVM has been an umbrella project with many distinct sub-projects, like polyglot technologies, with different levels of maturity and different use cases. The clear split between what moves to OpenJDK and the rest will likely help to focus more on the GraalVM Native Image support and clarify what GraalVM means for end users.
InfoQ: The GraalVM Java compilers now have four feature releases per year and will have two in the future. How does that affect Spring?
Deleuze: It is true that the four feature releases have been pretty useful for moving forward fast while we were experimenting with the Spring Native project. But Spring Boot 3, which was released in late November, started our official and production-grade support for GraalVM native. So, from that perspective, the switch to a slower pace in terms of features, synchronized with OpenJDK releases, will help handle those upgrades consistently, with less frequent risks of breaking changes and more time to work on ambitious new features. Let's not forget there will also be four predictable quarterly Critical Patch Updates annually to fix glitches on native image support.
InfoQ: The development of the GraalVM Java compilers will be different, with at least one OpenJDK project, committers, reviewers, and JEPs. What’s the impact on Spring?
Deleuze: While the processes will change, we expect to continue the collaboration between Spring and GraalVM teams on the OpenJDK side. Also, as announced last year, we work closely with BellSoft, one of the leading OpenJDK contributors, on both JDK and native support. We will share more details on the impact in the upcoming months.
Jason Greene, Distinguished Engineer & Manager at Red Hat, responded on behalf of the Quarkus framework.
InfoQ: How do you view the move of the GraalVM JIT and AOT compilers for Java to OpenJDK?
Jason Greene: We see it as a positive change for both the GraalVM and OpenJDK communities. Bringing the two projects closer together will increase collaboration and code-sharing between the efforts, including work that advances Project Leyden. We have a positive relationship with both teams and look forward to that continuing in the new structure.
InfoQ: The GraalVM Java compilers now have four feature releases per year and will have two in the future. How does that affect Quarkus?
Greene: The change may mean waiting a little longer for a new Native Image feature to appear in a formal GraalVM release. However, GraalVM also has an extensibility SPI that we currently utilize in Quarkus. This, in combination with related improvements to Quarkus itself, allows for improvements to the Quarkus GraalVM Native Image experience within the frequent Quarkus release schedule.
InfoQ: The GraalVM Java compilers will have at least one OpenJDK project with committers, reviewers, and JEPs. What’s the impact on Quarkus?
Greene: We expect minimal impact on the Quarkus community from these changes. Even though the OpenJDK processes and tools have some differences, they share similar goals with the current model. While GraalVM did not use JEPs, they did have design discussions on issues and a PR process involving regular code reviews.
Graeme Rocher, Architect at Oracle, provided a view from the Micronaut framework.
InfoQ: How do you view the move of the GraalVM JIT and AOT compilers for Java to OpenJDK?
Graeme Rocher: This is an excellent step for the community and the broader adoption of GraalVM.
InfoQ: The GraalVM Java compilers now have four feature releases per year and will have two in the future. How does that affect Micronaut?
Rocher: The quarterly releases were helpful during the early adoption phase of GraalVM. GraalVM is mature and stable now, so moving to two releases a year is less of a problem and more of a benefit at this stage. The Micronaut team and the GraalVM team both work at Oracle Labs and will continue to collaborate and ensure developer builds and snapshots are well-tested for each release.
InfoQ: The GraalVM Java compilers will have at least one OpenJDK project with committers, reviewers, and JEPs. What’s the impact on Micronaut?
Rocher: There will undoubtedly be efforts to standardize many of the APIs and annotations for AOT, which we will gradually move to as these new APIs emerge. However, this is not a new challenge for Micronaut as it has evolved in parallel with GraalVM and adapted to improvements as they have emerged.
Tomas Langer, architect at Oracle, responded for the Helidon framework.
InfoQ: How do you view the move of the GraalVM JIT and AOT compilers for Java to OpenJDK?
Tomas Langer: The JIT compiler helps the runtime and has no impact on the sources and development process of Helidon. Any performance improvement to OpenJDK is excellent!
AOT compilation impacts the way we design (and test) our software. If Native Image becomes part of OpenJDK, complexity will decrease for any work related to AOT — we would only need a single installation of a JDK. The same would be true for our customers.
InfoQ: The GraalVM Java compilers now have four feature releases per year and will have two in the future. How does that affect Helidon?
Langer: As GraalVM Native Image becomes more mature, we should not see such significant changes as we have seen in the past. Having fewer releases will actually make our life easier, as we should be able to support the latest release easier than in the past: We are skipping GraalVM release support, as the amount of testing and associated work makes it harder to stay on the latest release.
InfoQ: The GraalVM Java compilers will have at least one OpenJDK project with committers, reviewers, and JEPs. What’s the impact on Helidon?
Langer: I think the answer is very similar to the previous one — the more mature GraalVM Native Image is, the easier it should be for us to consume it.
GraalVM currently plans four feature releases for 2023. At least the first release will still contain the GraalVM Java compilers, as GraalVM Native Image will get full Java 19 support in version 23.0 on January 24, 2023. It’s unclear when the GraalVM Java compilers will have their last release with GraalVM and when they’ll have their first release with OpenJDK.

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